Model Interfaces

Most of the methods defined in the capability interfaces either return or are passed in representations of a user. These representations are defined by the org.keycloak.models.UserModel interface. App developers are required to implement this interface. It provides a mapping between the external user store and the user metamodel that Keycloak uses.

package org.keycloak.models;

public interface UserModel extends RoleMapperModel {
    String getId();

    String getUsername();
    void setUsername(String username);

    String getFirstName();
    void setFirstName(String firstName);

    String getLastName();
    void setLastName(String lastName);

    String getEmail();
    void setEmail(String email);

UserModel implementations provide access to read and update metadata about the user including things like username, name, email, role and group mappings, as well as other arbitrary attributes.

There are other model classes within the org.keycloak.models package that represent other parts of the Keycloak metamodel: RealmModel, RoleModel, GroupModel, and ClientModel.

Storage Ids

One important method of UserModel is the getId() method. When implementing UserModel developers must be aware of the user id format. The format must be:

"f:" + component id + ":" + external id

The Keycloak runtime often has to look up users by their user id. The user id contains enough information so that the runtime does not have to query every single UserStorageProvider in the system to find the user.

The component id is the id returned from ComponentModel.getId(). The ComponentModel is passed in as a parameter when creating the provider class so you can get it from there. The external id is information your provider class needs to find the user in the external store. This is often a username or a uid. For example, it might look something like this:


When the runtime does a lookup by id, the id is parsed to obtain the component id. The component id is used to locate the UserStorageProvider that was originally used to load the user. That provider is then passed the id. The provider again parses the id to obtain the external id it will use to locate the user in external user storage.